It is a unfortunate point of archaeological life that we can usually only discover issues when they are about to be lost for good, but such is the unsatisfied marriage concerning rescue archaeology and infrastructure growth. Design of the Ilisu dam, on the river Tigris in southeast Turkey, is now comprehensive and the flooding of 300km2 of land at the rear of it may well get started as early as this spring. The dam will provide h2o stability and electrical power to the nearby location, as properly as even more limit the diminishing stream of drinking water downstream to Iraq, displace at least 70,000 men and women and flood up to 500 archaeological websites.
Leaving its tangled politics aside, the Ilisu dam signifies a significant reduction of cultural heritage in this archaeologically prosperous spot, most notably the effectively-publicised destruction of the lovely and historic city of Hasankeyf. Even so, it has also offered a good opportunity to find out about the previous of this location.
When the dam was inexperienced-lit in the early 1990s, the Turkish authorities invited groups of local and global archaeologists to perform in the Tigris basin upstream of Ilisu to get well as a lot as probable prior to the dam was concluded. The result was a collection of intense survey initiatives, followed by extra than twenty excavations, which uncovered web-sites ranging from deep prehistory to the Ottoman time period. The spot to be flooded is now the finest-studied archaeological landscape in eastern Turkey.
The salvage attempts have authorized archaeologists to discover, report, and conserve a large archive of info. Considerably ironically, then, the dam by itself is accountable for a fantastic maximize in our awareness of this location.”
Prof. Tim Matney, director of the Ziyaret Tepe Challenge
1 of the biggest Ilisu dam salvage excavations was at the site of Ziyaret Tepe an imposing profession mound soaring 22 metres previously mentioned the basic, inside which lies the ancient Assyrian town of Tušhan.
Tušhan was a provincial centre which guarded the northern border of the mighty Assyrian empire for almost 300 several years (882-611 BC). It in no way approached the grandeur of an Assyrian cash these kinds of as Nineveh, but it was portion of the Assyrian network of imperial handle which imposed the “Yoke of Assur” around conquered locations. Tušhan was household not just to Assyrian settlers, but to deportees from all about the empire, uprooted from their homelands as a further implies of subjugation.
Perform at Ziyaret Tepe started in 1997 and ran for eighteen several years extended adequate for students to graduate into educational professions, and for the director’s hair to flip grey. In 2003 I arrived at the web-site as a new archaeology graduate without the need of the faintest thought what I was carrying out, not thinking for a moment I’d nevertheless be digging there 10 a long time later. The outcomes of all those extended sweltering summers in the subject are now at last ready to be offered, with the publication this calendar year of the project’s initial e book. It offers the most finish image of an Assyrian imperial city however acknowledged.
The governor’s palace at Tušhan, which sits on the eastern facet of the significant mound, was developed beneath king Ashurnasirpal II, who boasted about its design in an inscription discovered not considerably from the web site. As opposed to Ashurnasirpal’s outstanding Palace at Nimrud, the throne place of which can be seen in the British Museum, Tušhan’s provincial palace had no stone reliefs. Instead its white plastered walls have been adorned with finely painted geometric patterns in blue, purple, orange and black. The reception suite was outfitted with a trackway for a moveable heating brazier and neatly tiled rest room facilities, supplying it a touch of luxurious.
Some of the governors by themselves may possibly have been located. Underneath the paving of the palace courtyard five intact cremation burials had been excavated. No matter whether or not these were being the governors of Tušhan, they ended up definitely significant people, cremated on beds with ivory fittings, and provided with bronze bowls, lamps and ornaments. Intriguingly, cremation was not an Assyrian practice and these burials propose that Tušhan’s ruling elite had possibly adopted regional customs, or have been not them selves Assyrians.
To the south of the superior mound, Tušhan had a significant lessen city and this is where by the genuine do the job of the metropolis took spot. Above numerous seasons the excavation team uncovered a sequence of significant buildings, all established all around courtyards paved with beautiful black and white chequerboard mosaics manufactured of countless numbers of smaller, clean river pebbles. Most ended up superior-position residences but just one had much more advanced functions. The entrance chamber to this creating yielded hundreds of tiny clay tokens little clay objects in a vary of styles standing for distinct quantities and commodities. These minor pyramids, spheres, cylinders, cones, squares and cubes are assumed to have been utilized as accounting instruments, for keeping functioning-data as goods and persons passed in and out.
The administrative perform of the developing was verified when an archive of 28 cuneiform tablets was found in two rooms off the key courtyard. These incorporate lists of personnel, a report of resettlements and the bank loan of a slave, but most issue the movement of barley. These transactions are seen through the constructing in the form of standardised weights and enormous pithoi for grain storage. This making was a commercial and administrative hub of Assyrian Tušhan.
The frontier character of the metropolis, on the border with hostile Shubria, is distinct from the large fortifications which surrounded each the higher mound and the lower city. The mudbrick city wall was two kilometres extensive and just about 3 metres thick with a considerable ditch in entrance of it. The excavated southern gateway was intensely fortified, with guard chambers on each individual facet and troop barracks shut by.
Even with these safeguards, Tušhan fell with the relaxation of the Assyrian empire, conquered by a coalition of Medes and Babylonians. The imperial money at Nineveh fell just after a spectacular siege in 612 BC, soon after which the remaining Assyrian forces retreated steadily north-westward toward the empire’s last stand at the city of Harran. In the route of the Medes and Babylonians as they marched up the Tigris river lay Tušhan.
It was at this issue in 611 BC that an formal in the town referred to as Mannu-ki-libbali wrote a letter which was by no means despatched and constitutes just one of the most remarkable finds from Ziyaret Tepe. It information the collapse of the empire’s logistical framework and describes the hopeless situation of Tušhan in the experience of the advancing enemy.
Relating to the horses, Assyrian and Aramean scribes, cohort commanders, officials, coppersmiths, blacksmiths, those people who clean the resources and devices, carpenters, bow-makers, arrow-makers, weavers, tailors and repairers, to whom should really I turn? … Not one particular of them is there. How can I command? … The lists are not at my disposal. In accordance to what can they acquire them? Loss of life will come out of it. No a single [will escape]. I am finished.
Now Tušhan faces one more final enemy, as over the future pair of decades the h2o from the Ilisu dam advancements alongside the exact route as that employed by the Medes and Babylonians 2,600 years in the past. It remains to be viewed to what extent the web page will sooner or later be flooded, but even though its actual physical continues to be could be dropped, alongside with the other Ilisu web sites, there is some consolation in the fact that a wealthy history of the town of Tušhan, its background, folks and way of lifestyle, is now preserved in the archives and publications of the Ziyaret Tepe challenge.
Even more reading through
Ziyaret Tepe: Checking out the Anatolian Frontier of the Assyrian Empire by T. Matney, J. MacGinnis, D. Wicke & K. Köroğlu, Cornucopia textbooks